INDOEX International Workshop in India
Meeting Reports

Agenda and Meeting Report of INDOEX
Workshop New Delhi, India
January 3-6, 1997
(as event occurred)

Workshop Agenda

FRIDAY, JAN 3 - 1600-17:30

Inaugural Session: Introduction of INDOEX Program to Indian Agencies and University Officials
  Welcome	        		 	E.S.R. Gopal, Director, NPL
  Opening Remarks and Indian Program		A.P. Mitra
  INDOEX Climate Perspective			V. Ramanathan
  INDOEX Chemistry Perspective			P.J. Crutzen
  Satellite and Balloon Interests of INDOEX	R. Sadourny
  NSF Perspective				J. Fein
  Inaugural Address				R. Kasturirangan, Chairman, ISRO
  Vote of Thanks				K.K. Mahajan, NPL

SATURDAY, JAN 4 - 1100-17:10

Indian Program - 1100-1200
  Meteorology and Climate			U.C. Mohanty
  Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry		B.V. Krishnamurthy
  Observation Systems				A.P. Mitra
  Data Management				J. Dutta/S.C. Chakravarty

International Program - 1200-1315
  Germany					D. Kley
  France					R. Sadourny
  Sweden					H. Rodhe
  USA						F.P.J. Valero/A. Tuck

Lunch - 1315-1430 (International Steering Group will meet during lunch)

Working Group Reports - 1430-1510
  Ground Sites (Male, Mauritius, Mt. Abu)	J. Prospero/A. Jayaraman
  Satellites					V.K. Agarwal/W. Collins/R. 	
  Modeling					U.C. Mohanty
  Ships						D. Kley / N. Bahulayan

Coffee Break - 1510-1530

Special Topics Related to INDOEX - 1530-1700
  New Analyses for the Indian Ocean		T.N. Krishnamurti
  Dynamics of the ITCZ				J. Srinivasan
  Planetary Boundary layer in INDOEX		S. Raman
  Transition Monsoon				S.K. Misra
  Recent Successes with Indian Ozone Measuring Systems	S.K. Srivastava (IMD)
  Radiation/Cloud Interaction for Satellite Data V.K. Agarwal

Workshop Dinner - 2000
	CSIR Science Centre
SUNDAY, JAN 5 - 1000-1730

Special Topics Continued - 1000-1200 (includes coffee break)
  3-D Model for Circulation in Indian Ocean	S. Swathi
  Recent Trends in Low Level Ozone Over India	S. Lal
  Characteristics of Aerosols over India	K. Krishnamurthi
  Aerosol Indirect Effect			A. Heymsfield
  Effect of Desert Dust				P.K. Das
  Solar Absorption in Clear and Cloudy Atmosphere F.P.J. Valero
  Chemistry Applicable to INDOEX Region		A.P. Mitra
  A 3-Dimentional Model for Atmospheric Chemistry P. Rasch
  Eulerian Transport of Pressure Tracers in INDOEX Region  O. Bouchier
  TOMS Ozone Data				P.K. Bhartia
  Can Data from INDOEX be used in Navy Center?	R. Anala

Cruise 109 - 1200-1315
  Overview					N. Bahulayan
  Aerosol results				A. Jayaraman
  Chemistry	   				D.C. Parashar

Lunch - 1315-1430

Cruise 120- 1430-1515
  Overview and Measuring Surface Turbulent Flow	S. Raman/A.P. Mitra
	-  US Component				
	-  Indian Component			B.V. Krishnamurthy

1998 INDOEX Campaign - 1515-1600
  Overview					V. Ramanathan/A.P. Mitra
  Proposed Experiments				All participants
Coffee Break - 1600-1615

Data Exchange Protocol - 1615-1730
  Opening Remarks				J. Fein/S.C. Chakravarthy
  Indian ERNET System			       	S.P. Nawathe
  UCAR/NCAR Data Archival System		R. Dirks
  Proposed CIDS System				H. Nguyen, W. Collins, 	
  Closing Remarks

MONDAY, JAN 6 0930-1130 Working Group Meetings


INDOEX Meeting Report
New Delhi, January 3-6, 1997

Rapporteurs: Dana E. Lane (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), William Collins (SIO), D.C.
Parashar, Shelly Pope (SIO), and Sumana Bhattacharya.

January 4, 1997

1. A.P. Mitra
Of special interest:		-possible extension of observing period into April-May to 	
				cover the beginning of the summer monsoon

Information from 20 cruise:	-Eppley¹s working; CCN spectrometer has some problems; 
				Indian experiments running fine
2. V. Ramanathan
Summary of INDOEX:	
	-Indian Ocean is Œnatural laboratory¹ to study anthropogenic forcing of climate
	-Monsoon flow mixes pristine and polluted air mass
	-Need free and open sharing of platforms and data
3. R. Sadourny
Satellites and Balloons:	
		-Radiation and precipitation data
		-ADEOS-POLDER instrument which gives aerosol information
		-ScaRaB instrument on Russian satellite
		-Launching balloons into Œplume¹ coming from Indian continent
4. J. Fein
NSF, NOAA, NASA, DOE:	-Humans are having a strong influence on environmental 
			-Climate, aerosols and atmospheric chemistry are
			-Collaboration and cooperation needed
			-The peer review was overwhelmingly positive
				-NOAA funded atmospheric chemistry part
				-Availability of high altitude aircraft in ?
					-more in April
				-budgets of all four programs for next 2 years in question

INDOEX Workshop
January 4, 1997

1. U.C. Mohanty: Meteorology and Climate
Need to use various models including GCM
Need for collaboration between various national and international institutes to study the 
following main areas of research:
A. Air-sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer (OML)
OML variability
Role of OML on marine boundary layer (MBL)
Mapping surface fluxes; estimating surface fluxes
Estimating turbulent exchange coefficients
Study coupled air-sea processes
Look at surface energy balance
Estimate bulk exchange coefficients
Global heat budget
B. Marine boundary layer and entrainment
Evolution and structure of MBL
Effect of SST gradient on MBL
PBL entrainment and vertical transport of aerosol in MBL
Shallow and deep convection in MBL
Diurnal variations in MBL
Meso-scale and synoptic scale events and effect on MBL
C. ITCZ and monsoon dynamics
Evolution and dynamics of ITCZ and monsoon
N-S migration of ITCZ
Mass, sensible heat and moisture budgets in both
cloud-radiation feedback (CRF)
Cloud dynamics
Seasonal and interannual variations
D. Aerosol and cloud radiation
Aerosol-cloud-radiation feedbacks
Testing & development of appropriate cloud-radiation interaction parameters inc. aerosols
Surface fluxes and their variation with meteorological condition variation
Effect of aerosols on energy balance, CRF, Cloud climatology
E. Aerosol formation
Surface strength aerosols
Transport processes and mechanisms
Effect of PBL entrainment on vertical transport of aerosols
Mechanism of transport of desert dust in ITCZ
Coastal effects
Various parameters/datasets to be covered in observation program to study above processes
Methods include slow-rising balloons, satellite data on cloud cover, ppt, SST, wind  
profiles, sea surface albedo, latent heat flux, sodar facility, integrated sounding system,etc.
Note:  There may be separate Indian funding for some of these programs
Some data collection in progress on Cruise 120 R/V Sagar Kanya

2. A.P. Mitra: Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry

(a)	Spectral Optical Depth of Aerosol...
(b)	Size distribution of ...
	Sulfur and soot particles
	Source characteristics
	Regional and synoptic scale transport of ...
(c)	Ozone and CO
	Modeling of profiles and characteristics of ...

A. Aerosol optical depth
   				-multiwave length radiometer (MWR)
				(380, 400, 450, 500, 650, 750, 850, 935, 1025 nm)
				-Sun photometer
Note: Some equipment may be installed in Mauritius.
B. Size distribution
				-Anderson sampler
				-CW and pulsed LIDAR
C. Ozone & precursor gases
				-Gas and ion chromatographs
				-Surface ozone measurements
				-Brewer spectrometer
				-Dobson spectrometer
				-Ozone sonde
				-NPL-PRL and NIO study surface ozone and precursors
				Availability of Brewer¹s spectrometer at Delhi and 
Note:	There is a wide distribution of measuring sites throughout India
	The coastal chain of stations (west coast) to measure transport from source region 
Discussed MST radar and its capabilities
Meeting:  Jan 8-11, 1997	Aerosols, biomass burning and acid rain workshop, 
Observation Systems
Ozone network		8 ground, 5 total
Radiation		45 stations, 6 with selected band filters, 17 principal stations
BAPMON			12 stations
Piloted balloons	62 stations
Radars			88 stations, 12 high power S-band, 26 x-band
Surface			562 stations, 132 principal
Raingauges		11,000 stations
Radiometersonde		8 stations, samples every fortnight
(Three stations collect simultaneous ozone, aerosol and radiation flux)
* Unclear how equipment is calibrated
National Data Center at Pune
Archived data - more than 100 years
Data available on request for a fee
Available to researchers without restrictions
Would like to put regional averages as input to models
Would like to intercompare measurements
Note:  Format of data may not be useable
Cruises 109 and 120 R/V Sagar Kanya, future pre-INDOEX cruise
Main INDOEX cruises end 1997 and 1998
3. J. Dutta: Data Management

Space Science Data Center:	-archived satellite data
				-Data available hard copy, tap or floppy for a fee
				-Located at NPL - 1 of 3 worldwide (others in France & US)
				-Will receive raw and processed data
Data available: ground based, ship, aircraft, balloon, satellite
Real time data will be provided to INDOEX participants during campaign.
Quality control/quality check
Recommend upgrade to 64Kb for real time data transfer


1. Dieter Kley: Germany
Two types of participation:
A.  aircraft (part of US and Dutch program)
B.  German ship contributing chemical measurements:
		-chemical measurements
		-radiosonde launched every 6 hours
		-collect data up to tropopause (basic meteorological package)
		-ozone sondes for chemical instruments
i.e. convection humidifies atmosphere - large dry regions in troposphere?

Similar to CEPEX:	-Vaisala radiosonde data launched every six hours
				-little ozone at surface and in upper BL?
				-can ozone be used as a measure of deep convection
Goals:		-Energy budget
		-Heat budget at surface
		-Aerosols in MBL
		-Rates of chemical processes in MBL and troposphere
		-Influence of deep convection on water vapor budget
		-Weak convection?  High SST before summer monsoon
		-Modification of cloud properties
		-absorption in budgets
		-Lateral distribution of trace species
		-European and US scientists also plan work using German ship as platform
		-Prof. Crutzen mentioned sizeable Dutch involvement
2. R. Sadourny: France

Participation to INDOEX Campaign:	-Cloud-aerosol optical properties
					-Air mass motion
					-Carbon optical properties
Associated Programs:
-Cloud-aerosol optical properties can be measured	-airborne POLDER
							-other ground-based instruments?
							-ground single diffusion albedo from 
-Low level drifting balloons (alt.~ 1km) can measure	-low level wind fields
	-drifting data from February off west coast of India
	-diffusion properties
	-small scale properties
	-ITCZ dynamics
-Data shown from 1992	-isopycnal trajectory simulations (925 mb)
			-90 balloons - launches every 4 hours - 2 week data set
			-shows location of ITCZ
-Carbon aerosols can be measured from both industrial and vegetation sources
	-mostly ground-based
	-also measure interaction with clouds, modifications, moistening
-Description of La Reunion observing station -physics and chemistry of aerosols
						-optical and radiative properties
						-ozone climatology
						-troposphere-stratosphere exchange
-Satellite observing platform:	-ScaRaB - radiometer on Russian satellite, POLDER, 
measures reflected solar radiation (is on ADEOS satellite, new)
-These could be used to improve ERB retrievals of cloud top pressure 
	- aerosols
	-water vapor over integrated column
	-ocean biological processes
-METEOSAT has 3 options:
	i)  full INDOEX coverage 65šE
	ii)  restricted coverage of interesting ensembles 45šE
	iii)  coverage of central instrumented area 30šE
(*Meeting in Sept. 97 to decide if this may be placed to retrieve good INDOEX data)
-Analysis of satellite data to study interactions between clouds, water vapor and radiation
i.e. radiation fields, clouds, temperature, water vapor, hydrological and radiative 
-Analyze balloon data, i.e. air flow-depression
-Studies of tropical cloud systems:	-classification
					-conditions for occurrence
					-frequency of cloud types
					-amount of cloud cover
					-reflectivity and brightness temperature
					-clear sky frequency
-Air flow dynamics and study of the variability of NE monsoon
-Modeling Experiments:		-large scale and mesoscale transport
				-TMZ-Z chemical transport
				-LMD-Z aerosol transport with Van Leer scheme
	at the mesoscale:	-chemistry-radiation coupling in MBL
				-DESCAM spectral model
				-RAMS model coupled to gas-aqueous model
				-cloud heterogeneity
What is availability of POLDER data and how does this data help reach INDOEX goals?
3. H. Rodhe: Sweden
To measure:		-transport and removal of aerosols
			-chemical and physical characteristics of aerosols
			-acidity of rainwater
			-gaseous precursors vs. dust sources
			-anthropogenic vs. natural aerosol sources
			-non sea salt sulfate-sulfur budget
Approach:	-determine chemical composition of precipitation
		-collect dry fallout
		-already have 5 Indian sites
Cruise 120 (1996-97):		-initial precipitation chemistry
				-pH of rainwater over ocean	-high acidity (low pH)
								-high sulfate
1998 INDOEX Cruise:	-study aerosol particle by size
				-precipitation chemistry same as in Cruise 120 but with 
					cleaner sampling strategy
Main Campaign:	-all of the above on three ships
		-aircraft sampling of aerosols and water vapor
4. F.P.J. Valero, A. Tuck: USA
Three objectives:	1.  direct and indirect forcing by aerosols
			2.  absorption of solar radiation by clouds
			3.  chemical studies of aerosols
What INDOEX adds:	-¹natural laboratory¹
			-SO2 pollution measurements in tropics
			-Indian Ocean
			-measurements of excess absorption
			-verify models against measurements
			-organization of data management
Possible aircraft measurement options:		-B57 - decision April 1997
		-Alternatives may be ER-2, GA RPV (remotely piloted vehicle)
NOAA contribution:	
	1.  laser ion mass spectrometry of individual particles, radiative 	
		instruments for WB57F aircraft
	2.  chemical instruments for WP3D aircraft
	3.  application for R/V Ron Brown
	4.  C-130 aircraft - negative ion spectra to characterize aerosol content
Expect results to emphasize importance of tracer measurements.
Suspect correlation between water vapor and methane
quote: There is a *standing crop* of detectable stratospheric air in the upper tropical 


1. J. Prospero: Ground Sites
Setup 1 year prior to experiment to better focus the experiment
Note:  in 1990 & 91, a substantial gradient along ITCZ of aerosol coming from India
Planning to take continuous measurements:	-aerosols
						-precursor gases
Changes:	-micro-pulsed LIDAR to be put on Male
AERONET program to measure:	-aerosol optical depth
				-single scatter albedo
				-radiative characteristics of area
Data shown from Marion Island:	-seasonal cycle of non sea salt sulfate
Data from Reunion shown:	-upper limit of aerosol level
				-seasonal cycle of non sea salt sulfate
2. A. Jayaraman: Ground Sites
Research on Mount Abu:	1.  aerosols and radiation
				-Nd: YAG backscatter LIDAR
				-filter photometer
				-QCM particle impactor system
				-radiation flux measurements
			2.  tropical chemistry
				-monitor O3
				-monitor precursor gases
				-long term monitoring of trace gases
			3.  meteorological observations
3. V.K. Agarwal: Satellites
Monsoon may be predicted within a few days accuracy with model
Indian Satellite Missions:	March 1996	-IRS-P3
						-polar, sun synchronous
						-WiFS, MOS, x-ray astronomy
				March 1998	-Ocean Sat1 (P4)
						-polar, sun synchronous
						-MSMR, ocean color monitor (OCM)
4. W. Collins: Satellites
US Satellite Program:	-estimate optical depth and direct radiative forcing
			-quantify indirect effect
			-estimate TOA fluxes from satellite
			-locate source of difference between in situ and 
				satellite measured radiation budgets
Before IFP:	-aerosol optical depth AVHRR, SeaWiFS
		-calibrate imagers
		-review currently archived data
Data shown from 1989: -is there a gradient in stratus cloud albedo from Arabian Sea 
				to equator?
Currently satellite retrieval is within 1% of RAMs data
	-hope to develop better retrieval for surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing
5. R. Bernstein: Satellites
NCAR-C4 GCM (Kiehl) -chemical transport model but no feedback to dynamics

INDOEX Workshop
January 5, 1997


1. T.N. Krishnamurthi: New Analysis for Indian Ocean
Using FSU model:	
	-starts with physical initialization of rain ? winds
	-leads to availability of good daily mesoscale analysis (monthly also available)
	-studies:	-low, middle ? high clouds / cloud fractions
					-match satellite and model OLR
					-disturbance passage every 4 to 6 days
					-N-S meander of ITCZ
					-3-D trajectory information
	-possibility of predicting inflow channels up to 48 hours
	-these channels evolve from above disturbances but are quite 
		intermittent, 15 knot winds, and are very concentrated
					-prediction could help determine flight patterns
2. J. Srinivasan: Dynamics of the ITCZ
ITCZ during the winter monsoon is not consistent:	
	-it seems to migrate
	-so defining a Œmean¹ ITCZ is difficult
	-there is no strong SST gradient
	-Indian component should focus on this
Data shown from Atlantic Ocean has a high correlation between the number of cloudy days 
and the CAPE
It was suggested that it¹s important to look at S-T profiles during INDOEX
	-recall that a low RH parcel has (-) buoyancy
	-in the Indian Ocean, the SST is high but there is not always convection
	-possibly due to (-) buoyancy
Suggested to make simultaneous measurements similar to those made in GATE, CEPEX
Also suggested investigation of role aerosols play in GCM

3. S.K. Misra: Early Phase of Monsoon over the Indian Ocean
Actually spoke of monsoonal transit over Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is a unique area due to land-ocean interactions
	-Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau
		-baroclinic barrier in winter
		-do not get NE across Arabian Sea
		-continental India
		-starts to heat ~15 February
		-redirects air stream over Bay of Bengal
		-circulation is weakened
October is the seasonal low over the Bay of Bengal - lasts to December 15
	-this causes weakening of ITCZ in Western Indian Ocean
Equatorial trough strengthens abruptly in June creating tropical storms
	-southern hemisphere trough (5šS) is much weaker than northern hemisphere
10šN-10šS is where convection mainly occurs
Over Indian Ocean there is small diurnal variations, <15W/day
	-large scale averages don¹t show great change
Emphasis was placed on double equatorial trough zone
	-summer - air from Africa
	-winter - jet stream - air from Australia & Indonesia
SST max. is always in North Indian Ocean which may partly explain the location of 
Models being run in India are comparable to those run in US and Europe in ability to 
predict the monsoon.
4. S. Raman: Planetary Boundary Layer in INDOEX
Boundary layer processes:	-diurnal variation - stronger over land than ocean
				-ocean mixed layer
				-wind shear
				-convection and clouds
				-turbulence and deposition are important
				-low level jets - may be key transport process
Questions:	-Why do low level jets occur in BL?  -What are the winds over Northern 	
			India during night?  (peninsula has NE everywhere)
Aerosol transport over coast:	-there is sea breeze circulation along the west coast of India.  
				-material gets trapped in this circulation and form clouds
				-in model studies, the coast is preferred a??? of deep 
					convection to move aerosols to upper atmosphere
				-divergent flow in the BL may also bring in aerosols
Data shown from ships of opportunity - TOGA cruises
   -provide 10 years meteorology
   -28 Feb. 1992-8 March 1992: strong diurnal variation in temperature which causes 
   changes in sensible? heat flux which alters BL height which effects transport out of BL
	Note:  In Indian Ocean, diurnal change is smaller
Data also shown from July 1992 -suggested a need for several platforms to characterize BL 
with special attention paid to coastal zone.
5. S.K. Srivastava: Recent successes with Indian Ozone Measuring System
IMD ozone network:	-surface ozone
			-Dobson spectrometer
			-ozone sonde
			-Brewster ozone spectrometer
			* all instruments periodically calibrated
Also, the standards were compared with Japanese standards in 1983
			-0% error is calculated ozone value
			-greater difference in comparison with standard
			-still less than 3 Dobson units (1% of measurement)
Ozone sondes were compared with Germany and Canada
			-they all follow the same trend
			-mean accuracy ±1%
			-standard deviation is ±10-20% in troposphere

6. V.K. Agarwal: Radiation / Cloud Interaction for Satellite Data
Want to study effect of cloud radiation feedback in models Would like to perform column calculation of bulk formulation to compare with GOES Also calculated cloud cover and compared to GOES ->50% difference -calculated radiative fluxes from ship -shortwave flux is way off -longwave flux is okay Proposed comprehensive system using ship and satellite data to recalculate cloud field Results from GCM: -there is a general dryness over Indian monsoon region -precipitation is good in CCMB Why is there such dryness? -improper orography -soil moisture -improper air-sea interactions -special cloud properties -water content Indian satellites have: -MOS -SSMI - can calculate total moisture content in the column Radiation budget data is difficult to get -18 m band (water vapor) will have large variations -also calibrate narrow band observations Satellites using Œstereoscopy¹ of 20š to put clouds in layers -only good for calculating cloud top height METEOSTAT has a water vapor channel
7. S. Swathi: 3D Model of Circulation in Indian Ocean
Modular Ocean Model:	
	-basic framework
	-Global Ocean
	-Indian Ocean through flow
	-mixing aspects of ocean
	-very diffuse thermocline
	-includes marine ecosystem
	-includes chemistry
	-would like to get fluxes
Data from 1993, TOPEX-POSEIDON
	-yearly average of surface height
	-anomalies in surface height to compare TOPEX?
Model data shows very strong vertical mixing in top layers of ocean
Suggested archiving all data in Net CDF format

8. R. Lal: Recent Trends in Low Level Ozone over India
Studies of O3:	-GHG
		-concentration increasing yearly 0.5-2%
		-highly variable across the region
			-variability in production
			-production is mostly from 0 gained from NO2 dissociation
			-production over land where NOx rich (polluted)
			-destruction over ocean where NOx poor (clean)
Some measure of vertical distribution is available
Several measurements of surface ozone available
There is a diurnal and seasonal variation the production of ozone
	-ozone max. in spring at Pune
	-ozone max. in winter at Ahmedabad
	-during winter production is up, NOx is up, CO is up
	-during summer production is down
Note:  current diurnal variation is stronger than 50 years ago
From Cruise 109:	-open ocean low O3
			-coastal high O3
Chemistry of cloud may play important role in O3 production
Future programs:	-LIDAR for aerosols
			-precursor gas measurement

9. K. Krishnamurthy: Characterization of Aerosols over India
There are several stations set up to study transport of aerosols over coast
	 - all stations have MWR
Data:  10 year mean 86-96 March-April-May maximum in aerosol optical depth
There is a bimodal distribution in aerosol particle size at low winds
	-at higher winds larger mode is favored
Arabian Sea clear sky albedo is very high in summer months

10. A. Heymsfield: Aerosol Indirect Effect
Indirect effect:	-ship exhaust inject high concentration of CCN into clouds
Effects on hydrological cycle:	-drizzle
			-fractional cloud coverage
			-cloud thickness
			-cloud fraction
Modeling studies:	-Twomey albedo indirectly related to droplet radius
Expecting very high albedo from clouds in INDOEX
	-may see indirect effects in anvils
	-ice albedo is more sensitive to droplet radius
With strong drizzle, the BL collapses
Suggested approach:	-pre INDOEX:	-measure CCN supersaturation spectra
			-used to initialize RAMS model
			-use RAMs output in LES model
			-use these results to develop sampling strategy for INDOEX
			-preliminary flight plan
			-models to indicate where in clouds to expect change

11. G. Shaw: Aerosol Indirect Effects
In general, if you add more CCN you get:	
					-more, smaller drops
					-clouds look whiter so they reflect more
					-this makes it difficult to form rain
					-changes climate
It is key to measure the shape of the CCN spectrum, but it is difficult
	-the shape is approximately logarithmic with slope k
	-k>2 pollution, concentration of pollutants not related to concentration of CCN
	-k<2 clear, CCN concentration aconcentration of pollutants
Effect of aerosols globally ~2š change

Sulfur gases from MBL are injected into mid-atmosphere
	-then new particle production in mid-troposphere so there¹s more CCN
	-the new particles grow - some particles subside into MBL
	-more particles enter MBL from this than from sea spray
Putting a sampler on  a ship may not be helpful as it is in MBL
	-we need an airplane

12. P.K. Das: Effect of Desert Dust
Need to infer diabatic heating required to sustain monsoon circulation
There are two dominant regions in the main circulation over India which control the 
	-descent over desert, Rajastan (NW India)
	-ascent over NE India
	-there are very large BL effects in areas of descent
Computed mean heating rates:		-2.4š/day cooling NW India
					-3.2š/day heating NE India
Comparing with radiometer sonde observations:	-cooling 1.5šC/day
						-warming >1šC/day
Model predicts right sign of heating
Observations alone do not explain circulation
	-cooling may be due to dust over desert (ref. Ramanathan)
Rayleigh scattering is not enough to make up cooling in model
	-need to add Mic scattering
Estimate of dust radius with satellites, but it is difficult to get heating rates

13. F.P.J. Valero: Solar Absorption in Clear and Cloudy Atmosphere
Enhanced absorption of solar radiation by clouds:	-radiative balance
							-in situ measurements
Use aircraft at several levels and establish net flux at each level by measuring radiation
There is an increase in absorption by atmospheric column with increasing cloudiness.  
Models measure similar clear sky values.  However difference between models and 
measurements increases with cloudiness.  The difference is as large as 150 w/m2 
(overcast).  This is not sampling error.  Measuring flux divergence in 500 nm band 
simultaneously with broad band fluxes.  This is completely constant, so the absorption in 
excess of theory is not an affect due to scattering.

Attempt to retrieve particle size must remember to include absorption in visible range.  
Otherwise values are unrealistic.  40-50% absorption in the visible range.

INDOEX is a good forum to study this to confirm results and decide what processes cause 
this.  Most measurements in existence come from Tropical Pacific.  If this effect is 
measured in Indian Ocean, then radiation driving models is wrong.

14. A.P. Mitra: Chemistry Applicable to INDOEX Region
Aerosol composition and transport:	-suggested mini-campaign
					-try intercomparison
SO2 estimated emission:	-2.5 Tg/yr	~1/4 of total 1990 Indian emissions
				-in 2010, will be 8 Tg/yr
O3:	-look at past and present ozone sondes to get quantitative change in the troposphere
	-the change in O3 over last 20 years in Indian region is insignificant 
		(natural low ozone belt)
	-model the experiment to try and reproduce vertical distribution if ozone in Delhi
	-model includes global emissions and chemistry
	-directly over Delhi ozone changed 20% in 4 years due to 2-stroke engines

15. P. Rasch: 3D Model for Atmospheric Chemistry
What is MATCH?	-off-line chemical transport model
			-remove trace species by resolved scale winds
			-full suite of subgrid scale processes including ?
			-able to use several different data sets CCMZ, ECMWF, NCEP, 
Looked at inert tropical tracers:	-CFCs	
					-radon, Pb210, wet deposition process
					-sulfur chemistry process
					-ozone production
					-stratospheric chemistry problems
Showed CCM data:	1.  isosurfaces (5ppbr) of sulfur emissions
				-shows origin of sulfate (location)
			2.  vertical distribution
				-summer - India obscured by dust
				-winter clearer
			3.  available animation sequences and contour plots
Show 10 day simulation with FSU - Dec. 1992
	-sulfate mixing ratio ppbr
	-at low altitude you see sulfate SW of India
	-high altitude there is very low sulfate around area of ITCZ
Pre-INDOEX:	-stability, or consistency chemical and aerosol climate

16. O. Bouchier: Eulerian Transport of Pressure Tracers in INDOEX Region
On-line transport - GCM with zoom capability
Tracking air masses:	-mass conservative advection scheme
			-BL mixing of tracers
			-convective transport of tracers
			-sink is radioactive decay, several sources
			-creates several arbitrary cont. source regions & trace air masses
			-data shows that for lower trajectories, Australia and Indonesia will 
				not be source regions
			-shows eddies develop and disappear in wind fields over days
			-shows plume shape changing daily 
				- occasionally reaches Southern Hemisphere
Model does not represent washout
Calculated back trajectories - similar to Krishnamurthy¹s results
Want to use zoom capability during INDOEX

17. P.K. Bhartia: TOMS - Ozone Data
3 instruments:	SBUVZ, TOMS, GOME
TOMS accuracy is about same as Dobson spectrophotometer
Mapping of troposphere ozone column amounts:	-no clouds
						-precision at 20%
Mapping of surface flux:	-300 nm, includes surface aerosols
TOMS comparison with surface is fairly good
AVHRR - 1989 data:	-cannot resolve over land
			-cannot resolve aerosol type
TOMS is quite capable of looking over land and is better at resolving the aerosol type.  You 
can see 
effect of absorption on Rayleigh scattering
Look at comparison 340/380 radiance ratio to 380 nm radiance to separate aerosol type
Possible to trace source regions of aerosols
This shows only absorbing aerosols
GOME - has similar capabilities
	- now running at low resolution
Note:  J. Prospero has worked a lot with TOMS - it is very sensitive to height of layer

18. R. Anala: Can Data from INDOEX be used in Navy Center?
Navy mesoscale model does not perform well over Indian Ocean
Possibility of putting very high resolution Navy forecast on Web

1. A. Jayaraman: Aerosol Results
Average number of dust storm days in a year: 26
Mt. Abu has evidence of dust carried high in the atmosphere, nearly to troposphere
Monsoon keeps down number of dust storms
Study:  plume of dust over Arabian Sea
	residence times for particles in atmosphere
y=time, x = 0.001-100
BL = long horizontal curve, slight positive slope, from 0.001 to 100
troposphere = arc with slight bend, corners point down, from 10-90, above BL
stratosphere = arc with strong bend, corners point down, from 40-80, above troposphere

Most observations from sun photometers
Conclusion: arid and semi-arid regions are main sources of  erosols over Arabian Sea 

2. D.C. Parashar: Chemistry
Mostly alkaline C. rain showers
Measured NO2, NO
SPM is important factor in controlling acidity
At present, no threat of acid rain
1. A.P. Mitra: Overview (Dec. 27, 1996-Feb. 1, 1997)
Ship:  R/V Sagar Kanya
Indian Equipment: 	-NPL: aerosol samples, GHG precipitation studies
			-PRL: surface ozone, CO, cascade sampler
No direct flux measurement on ships

2. S. Raman: Measuring Surface Turbulent Flow
Diurnal variation: T,u,v,w,p
Humidity correction - mean
Vaisala sondes: 2 per day
		6 am, 13:30 pm
		a few days with three
Meteorology on board is not very good.  Can not correct for ship movement continuously.
Balloon launch measures ocean ML depth
GPS to be added
ISS hoped to be added
Sondes will be launched within 10 minutes of AVHRR to check optical depths, validates 
GPS general water vapor profile.

1998 INDOEX Campaign

1. A.P. Mitra: Indian Planning
Cruises (R/V Sagar Sampada, R/V Sagar Kanya)
Synoptic study of sounders
Ozone sounding on research vessels by IMD
Mauritius to be supplied with MWR, ozone sensors, GC, aerosols samplers, etc.

2. V. Ramanathan: Proposal
Verify hypothesis for sulfur, GHG, water vapor
When talking about aerosol forcing - must show changes in optical depth
Main issues:	-gradient in surface aerosol forcing
		-use satellite (AVHRR/MOS, ScaRaB, CERES)
		-gradient O3, NOx, CO, H2O (vertical profiles)
		-gradient in cloud forcing and indirect effect
		-surface:  2 ships (north and south of ITCZ)
		-satellite:  ScaRaB, CERES (TRMM), INSAT)
		-boundary layer structure and fluxes
It may be possible to put a ship on each side of ITCZ

Proposed Experiments:
Ship:		-slow rising balloons - structure of MBL
		-ozone sounding (from ships at different latitudes, 
			overland can be arranged)
		-Brewer spectrometer - 1 per ship
		-Vaisala sonde - hi accuracy water vapor
		-LIDAR - 1 per ship
		-upper troposphere measurements
		-k-x radar for drizzle
		-hemispherical spectral radiometer
		-down looking spectral radiometer (5-10m boom)
		-up looking MWR - cloud liquid water
		-GPS sonde on ship
Surface:	-nephelometer
		-ion sensor
		-gas chromatograph
		-aerosol sampler
		-aerosol chemistry
		-aerosol size detector
		-SO2 detector
		-buoy arrays??? (near coast 12 - no humidity measure)

Data Exchange Protocol Session
5 January 1997

Plennary Session, Chair: R. Dirks

An introduction to the session was made by J. Fein, who summarized the data management 
issues into 2 goals:

	1) Exchange of data between PIs for collaborative research purposes
	2) Centralize information for intercomparison and validation purposes.

A proposal to use WMO Resolution 40 was made as the basis for the INDOEX data 
protocol (26 October 1995):

"As a fundamental principle of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and in 
consonance with the expanding requirements for its scientific and technical expertise, 
WMO commits itself to broadening and enhancing the free and unrestricted international 
exchange of meteorological and related data and products".

Presentations regarding specifics of  data issues, distribution, systems, and plans were then 

An overview of the Indian ERNET (Internet in India) System was provided by S.P. 
Nawathe.  The presentation included a description of ERNET including a brief history, 
services (e-mail, WWW etc.), achievements (networks, WWW, libraries, etc.), and future 
plans (backbone, access links, strengthening infrastructure, and access structure).  A 
proposed data storage, computing and network plan at India's National Physical 
Laboratory (NPL) for INDOEX was presented.  Data storage would be linked with the 
computing facilities at NPL.  Many of the specific issues such as the logistics, economics 
and engineering all still needed to be accomplished.  However, ERNET would help 
centralize many critical INDOEX datasets and facilitate exchange between data centers and 

Image processing of atmospheric data was presented by J. Das.  The research activities at 
ECSU were described which included:  (1) Algorithm development for processing remot 
sensing data (identify cloud type, features, cloud motion, storm tracks, etc); (2) work on 
sodar and satellite imagery; (3) Extract patterns and eliminate noise spikes (using filters, 
thresholding, segmenting and clustering) for development of an "expert knowledge" data 
base for images.  Details of this work are to be published in the Journal of Remote Sensing 
(1997).  Future efforts will include three dimensional cloud modeling.

An overview of UCAR's Joint Office for Science Support (JOSS) and it's role in INDOEX 
was presented by R. Dirks.  JOSS activities include program planning, field 
implementation, data management, and logistical support.  A typical field program timeline 
showed the scheduling of various tasks required prior to and following the field 
deployment. Specific JOSS data management  activities were described from the collection, 
processing, quality assurance, archival, and dissemination of data. An overview of th 
JOSS data management system (CODIAC) was presented including the WWW interface 
system functional components, data flow diagram, capabilities, and system usage statistics.  
JOSS also maintains a field catalog which could be used for the INDOEX field campaign t 
organize and disseminate field operations information (daily summaries, status reports, 
mission summaries, and related operational/research products).

The SIO/C4 Integrated Data System (CIDS) was presented by H. Nguyen and W. Collins. 
CIDS was designed to facilitate multidisciplinary research by providing a common interface 
to complex and heterogeneous datasets. A description of the system included its 
background and use in the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), utility as an 
analysis tool to collocate,  integrate and overlay various types of datasets, system and data 
access via the WWW, and potential use linking the various INDOEX data centers in the 
United States, India and Europe.  Examples of Integrated data products from CEPEX were 
shown and illustrated various research analysis capabilities of CIDS.  Details of the 
required data format (NetCDF), dataset requirements, and level of effort to convert data for 
use in CIDS was discussed.

A summary of Indian data management for operational datasets was given by S. 
Bhattacharyn.  This presentation included the data flow of  "raw" real-time data that might 
be needed for INDOEX operations and the final processed data which ends up in the 
archive.  The details of the data distribution (i.e. datasets, data rates, method, timing)  for 
INDOEX still need to be finalized depending upon frequency and resolution requirements. 
However, one issue to be decided is whether to archival  the "raw" real-time data while in 
the field.  One proposal is to delete these data following the field campaign and replace it 
with the final processed data from the archive.
INDOEX Workshop
Working Group Reports

January 6, 1997
Ships, Satellite Working Group Report
Ship Chairmen: R. Dickerson, S.W.A. Naqvi
Satellite Chairman: Srivastava, W. Collins, V. Agarwal
Ships for 1998 Campaign
2 Indian ships:		R/V Sagar Kanya, R/V Sagar Sampada
	-Naqvi will make proposals for ships
Note:  to put foreigner on ship, need prior government approval (NPL-Zalpuri, Mitra)
Time Line:	-paperwork to approve personnel on ship
		-ship details (deck space, etc.)  (Naqvi, George)
		-3-5 days/one week minimum to integrate - at most a week
		-DOE India to approve radioactive sources
Proposed date:  Feb. 15, 1998-April 1, 1998
Chief Scientist:  to be announced
Location of tracks:	-in proposal
			-time for two complete tracks
			-it has been recommended to study Bay of Bengal
			-suggested to study indirect effect by putting 1 ship N of ITCZ and 
			1 S of 	ITCZ and sample cumulus field (will require duplicate 	
			-ships need to collocate at some point(s)
			-try to keep tracks as simple as possible
Objectives:	-radiation / climate
		-aerosol / transport
Cruise 1998 Instruments:
	-MET package - currently missing on ships
	-suggestions:	-2 ISS systems (very costly)  (Sethu Raman)
	-in situ observations (standard met. variables: wind speed and direction; ambient, 
            dewpoint and sea surface temperatures; sea level pressure)	(Sen Gupta)
	-GPS sondes as backup to ISS
	-GPS winds
		- Drs. Raman and Sen Gupta will work on this basic MET package
             Boundary layer meteorology:	
	-Kzz, t¹, w¹, u¹, q¹, water vapor, turbulent flux fields	(Raman)
	-Sodar						(NPL)
	-Ocean Boundary Layer:
		-there is also interest in chemical fluxes
		-mixed layer depth, 20-50 meter (NPL)
Radiation: (Instrument   PIs)
	-ISS? (Raman, Sen Gupta)
	-SIO/UCSD instruments?, fluxes and optical depths (broadband pyranometers) 
	-double monochrometer (IR spectrum, 1-30 µm) (NPL)
	-aerosol optical depth sunphotometer 
		 (Krishnamurthy, Holbren, Shaw, Valero, Lubin, Jayaraman) (SPL, PRL)
	-UV radiation (KFJ)
	-multi-wavelength radiometer - hemispherical (SIO?)
	-wavelength matched to sunphotometers
	-total direct diffuse radiometers (TDDRs) (F.P.J. Valero)
	-TOA fluxes
In-situ Aerosol:
	-TSI - size number distribution, Gibb size (IITM/Puna, Karma)
	-aerosol optical depth (AOD)
	-CCN-R & SMPS (Shaw)
	-Bulk aerosol properties (Krishnamurthi (SPL), Prospero, Shaw)
	-Precipitation chemistry (ions and metals) (Granat-Stockholm, NPL)
	-Impactor (Granat-Stockholm, NPL, Carsey, Dickerson)
	-Electrical Gibb Size (Kamra, ITTM Pune)
Trace Gases:		-O3 at sea surface	(NPL, Lal)
			-O3 sonde	(Kley, Oltmans)
			-O3 LIDAR	(NASA, GSFL, Bhartia)
			-Brewer (O3)	(IMD)
			-NOx, NOy, NO	(Lal, Dickerson)
			-CO	(Lal/Dickerson))
			-SO2	(Dickerson)
			-Column NO2 by sunphotometer (NPL)
			-Grab can sampling	(Lal)
			-DMS and CO2 in ocean mixed layer (NIO)
			-CH4	(NPL)
			-H2O	(NPL)
			-Atmospheric CO2 (NIO, NPL)

Website: ship

Satellite Analysis for Cruise in 1998
Earth Radiation Budget:
	-ScaRaB (LMD/Collins)
	-INSAT calibration/ERB estimates (Collins, Agarwal, Das)

Aerosol retrievals:
	-MOS instrument (IRS satellite (Agarwal)
	-INSAT (Jayaraman)
	-AVHRR (Coakley/Collins)
	-OCTS/SeaWiFS (Bernstein/SeaSpace)
Aerosols (cont.):
	-POLDER (Y. Fouquart/LOA)
Surface Winds:
	-ORS-PY Microwave Scatterometer (Agarwal)
Data Management Working Group Meeting
6 January 1997

S. F. Williams, UCAR, USA (co-chairman)
D. P. Mukherjee, ISI, India
S. C. Chakravarty, ISRO, India (co-chairman)
S. Bhattacharya, NPL, India
Hung Nguyen, C4, USA
Jayati Dutta, ISRO, USA
Richard Dirks, UCAR, USA

J. Fein
V. Ramanathan

Various data issues regarding protocol, policy, and exchange, were discussed based on the 
Data Protocol Session (5 January 1997).  A strategy and schedule leading to the 
compilation of the INDOEX Data Management Plan was outlined and presented to the 
plenary session which followed.  The following summarize the major data issues agreed 

€ The Working Group endorsed WMO Resolution 40 (26 October 1995) as the INDOEX 
data protocol to be adopted and practiced by each of the INDOEX data centers.

"As a fundamental principle of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and in 
consonance with the expanding requirements for its scientific and technical expertise, 
WMO commits itself to broadening and enhancing the free and unrestricted international 
exchange of meteorological and related data and products".

Details of logistics such as exchange policy, written agreements, Memorandum of 
Understandings, etc. to implement this protocol will be addressed in the INDOEX Data 
Management Plan.

€ A data survey questionnaire will be developed between the various data centers and 
distributed to the INDOEX scientific community.  The questionnaire will obtain detailed 
information regarding the various datasets (i.e. data format, dataset size, data frequency 
and resolution, real-time operational requirements, etc).  The questionnaire will be 
distributed during Spring 1997 and individual sample datasets will be requested.  This will 
assist the data centers in handling and processing the data as well as developing any format 
converters necessary. Results from this survey will be summarized in the INDOEX Data 
Management Plan.

€ Draft Data Management plans will be compiled during Spring 1997.  UCAR/JOSS 
(Boulder, CO) will assume responsibility to compile a draft plan for the United States and 
European programs.  ISRO (Bangalore) will assume responsibility to compile a draft plan 
for the Indian program. An outline for these plans will be drafted and agreed upon between 
the editors.  Both draft plans will be submitted to the INDOEX Scientific Steering 
Committee by 15 June 1997.  Edits, modifications, and comments will be requested back 
by 15 July 1997.  Final draft versions will be completed and distributed to INDOEX 
participants by 15 August 1997.  Edits, modifications, and comments will be solicited for 
the next INDOEX Planning Meeting (la Jolla, CA) scheduled for 8-11 September 1997.  A 
session on data management during this meeting will focus on finalizing these plans.  
Following the meeting, both plans will be integrated into a single plan and jointly published 
and distributed (dates to be agreed upon at the meeting).

€ One of the major items to be included in the Data Management Plan is the issue of data 
exchange.  One method discussed included the potential installation of CIDS at the various 
data centers to facilitate data exchange using a common format.  The Working Group 
discussed and agreed upon the following timeline (following the INDOEX field campaigns) 
for data submission to the respective data centers:

	- 6 Months (or earlier) for operational datasets ONLY (e.g. satellite, upper air 
soundings, surface observations, model output, etc.).  All field documentation (Daily 
operations summaries, mission summaries, status reports, etc) will also be available at this 

	- 12 Months (or earlier) for processed research datasets.  Complete metadata 
(including dataset descriptions, documentation, calibrations, quality assurance results, etc.) 
must accompany the data.  These data will be distributed to INDOEX participants ONLY.  
The Investigator will be notified by the data center when a request for the data is received.

	- 12 to 24 Months for final review of the data by the data centers and the INDOEX 
Investigators.  Any discovered data problems will be corrected and reprocessed by the 
appropriate data source.  Updated versions will be submitted to the data centers.

	- 24 Months for open distribution to the general scientific community.  Data centers 
will be responsible for making arrangements on data distribution (e.g. cost, method of 
distribution, etc.).

NOTE - To keep the various data center archives up to date and consistent with latest 
dataset versions, the data centers will exchange current inventories at least every 6 months 
following the field campaigns.

Surface Working Group
Chairmen: J. Prospero, K. Krishnamurti
1.  Need daily sampling
	-Mauritius / Reunion

2.  Need nephlometer

3.  French nephlometer experiment or Reunion?
	-UM Nephlometer on ship
	-NPL - Put it on ship after ACE-2 then move it to Male

4.  LIDAR - daily operation during cruise - at least one hour
	-night-time only for Indian operation

5.  Size distribution impactor - 10 stage Anderson
	-Only at Minicoy?  Need more support for analysis
	-VM might do some samples
	-size at Mauritius (IPM-Pune) - Anderson
		-5-6 days.  low flow inst.
	-wet chemistry needs help
	-no size distribution measurements at Male

6.  Aerosol
	-put distribution measurement instruments at Indian site - Pune?
	-Trivandrum probably better location

7.  Multi-channel radiometer - 13 wavelength
	-313-1600 nm
	-Mauritius or Pune?
	-spectral radiometer - 200 nm to 720 nm at Pune
	-VV-vis spect. Pune and Mauritius

8.  Gases
	-NOx and SOx at islands (NO2, SO2, NH3, CH20)
	-no SO2 at islands
	-surface ozone at Pune
	-Minicoy:  ozone, NOx, SOx (Dickerson)
	-proposed SO2 & CH4 for Minicoy (PRL)

9.  Intercomparisons
	-link to ship programs
	-Chemistry:	techniques

10.  Sunphotometer

11.  Radiation Instruments
	-run for at least several days at Male or Trivandrum.
	-convenience?  customs?  labs?
	-at college - Male prior to cruise
	-gases at same time?  Dickerson
Modeling Group Report
Chairmen: U.C. Mohanty, P. Rasch
1.  Analysis:  INDOEX FSU-NCAR
	Other data:	-reanalysis of NCEP and ECMWF
	-operational analysis of NCMRWF, New Delhi
	-cloud (climate) analysis with INSAT

2.  Air-mass transport trajectory statistics
	-From analysis and forecasts: for planning post experimental studies

3.  Forecast products for field phase with operational forecast centers 
	-NCMRWF/NCEP (short, medium, extended ranges)

4.  Off-line transport models
	-Analyze simulated fields to determine distribution

5.  On-line transport models:  GCM, LAM

6.  Process Modeling
	-surface energy - MBL - shallow cloud interaction
	-cloud - aerosol - radiation  interaction
	-chemistry - radiation
	-coastal - mesoscale - transport
	-cloud microphysics

7.  Data / observational requirements
	-surface fluxes measurement
	-structure of lower troposphere (like ISS, slow rising RS/RW)
	-satellite / remote sensing radiance
	-GPS reflectivity
	-west coast stations of India
		-slow rising balloon, radiation, ozone observation enhancements
	-ozone sonde, RS/RW and radiometer sonde on ship
	-US Navy special observation over NW Indian Ocean for delayed model analysis
Experimental Design Document for the
1998 Pre-INDOEX Campaign

1. V. Ramanathan and A.P. Mitra: Introduction
Describe link between International Programs and with overall INDOEX goal

2. Group?: Scientific Goals and Objectives
Measurement  strategies...
3. Ship Program
ORV Sagar Kanya
	-NIO:  Overview (description, view, stats)
	-Dickerson, Raman, Sen Gupta:  individual experiments / measurements
	-Group:ship tracks & schedule (maps, ports, arrival/departure table) (Naqvi, group)

4. Supporting Observations
Ground based aerosol, chemistry, meteorological measurements
	-Prospero, Krishnamurthi:  Male, Mauritius, Reunion, 
		Minicoy, Indian subcontinent
5. Upper air measurements
	Srivastava, Raman, Mohanty

6. Satellite
			            Collins, Agarwal

7. Modeling Program

Krishnamurthy, Mohanty, Bahulayan: forecasting test / trajectory studies

8. Project Management
 		Chief scientist, operations

9. Data Protocol and Management
Williams, Chakravarty, Rao:  ³abstract² version of INDOEX Data Management Plan, table 
of datasets...

10. International Participation
Rao:  Participant list, addresses, phone, e-mail, project responsibility

Experiment Design Document Schedule

1.	Authors submit sections by February 1, 1997
2.	Draft documents completed and mailed to INDOEX Participants 
	for review Feb. 15, 1997
3.	Review comments submitted by March 15, 1997
4.	Document finalized and distributed by April 15, 1997

Editors:  Williams, Sen Gupta
Submit sections and comments to:

INDOEX Planning Meeting
Goa, India
January 8-9, 1997
National Institute of Oceanography
Dona Paula, Goa 403 004

List of Participants

USA side			                E-mail Address

V. Ramanathan, SIO, USA
J. Fein, NSF
H. Nguyen, SIO
F.P.J. Valero, SIO
R. Dirks, UCAR
G. Shaw, U. of Alaska
R. Dickerson, U. of Maryland
J. Prospero, U. of Miami
S. Raman, NCSU
S. Williams, UCAR

Indian side
K. Sen Gupta, SPL					- - - -
E. Desa, NIO
L.V.G. Rao, NIO
N. Bahulayan, NIO
S.W.A. Naqvi, NIO
V. V. Gopalakrishna, NIO
V.S.N. Murthy, NIO
Y.V.B. Sarma, NIO
M. R. Ramesh Kumar, NIO
M. Muraleedharan, NIO
M. T. Babu, NIO

 1.	Ship and Cruise Number:	ORV Sagar Kanya

 2.	Area of Operation:		Indian Ocean

 3.	Expected Date of Departure:	12 February 1998

 4.	Expected Date of Arrival:	31 March 1998

 5.	Duration:			47 days

 6.	Port of Embarkation:		Mormugao

 7.	Ports of Call:			Male (Maldives) - 2 days; 
					Port Louis (Mauritius) - 3 days

 8.	Port of Disembarkation:	Mormugao

 9.	Discipline (Major):		Atmospheric Sciences

10.	Contact Person(s):		L.V.G. Rao; N. Bahulayan; S.W.A. Naqvi

11.	Participants:			India:  NIO (6); NPL (4); PRL (2); SPL (2); IISc (1); 
					           IMD (2); IITM (2)

					USA:  SIO/C4 (3); NCSU (2); U. of MD (1); U. of 	
				           Alaska (1); NCAR (1)

					Germany:  KFJ (1)

					Mauritius:  (1)

					Maldives:  (1)

To study the role of continental aerosols, anthropogenic trace gases and aerosols on cloud-
radiation interactions and climate change over the Indian Ocean.  This will involve 
determination of latitudinal gradients in (a) surface aerosols forcing; (b) O3 , CO3, NO3, 
DMS and SO2 ; (c)  vertical profiles of water vapor and O3; (d)  boundary layer structure 
and transport; (e)  air-sea interaction; and (f)  surface cloud forcing.

We plan to make continuous observations on aerosol characteristics, radiation, trace gases 
and  basic meteorological variables on either side of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.  
Vertical profiling of O3 to stratospheric height and of meteorological parameters to a height 
of 20 km will be made at regular intervals to study the diurnal and spatial variations.  
Surface turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum and water vapor will be obtained at selected 
stations.  Important physical and chemical oceanographic properties will also be measured 
at these sites.  Calibration and comparison of ship-based and land-based instruments will 
be made at Male and Mauritius. 

Mt. Abu, Pune Trivandrum (and Mini Coys) - 3 surface stations, start to collect for 
INDOEX one month from now
Male from US and Europeans

2-3 pages of Action Steps for Desa by Feb 15 (Sethu Raman)
Rao - wants to be the center for ³ocean data²
Economic Exclusion Zone Questions - definition/permission (Naqvi)
Due Feb. 1 - brief proposal due to DOD (India)
Due Apr. 15 - Experimental Design Document
List of Experimentalists - forms due at DOD, when?? earliest possible
	all forms to be coordinated by/via Zalpuri of NPL   (Naqvi)

Desa - US power supply 115V 50-60 Hz problematic