Table 7b. Surface-based Measurements -- Intensive Protocol
Measurements include all of the Long-term Continuous Protocol, plus the following

Locations PIs Measurements/Instruments Notes
Malé Shaw a. CCN Concentration and Submicron Aerosol Chemistry: sulfate concentration, sulfate fraction, and refractory particles, including sub µm seasalt and crustal material. Proposed for INDOEX
* 10 nm diameter to ~300 nm diameter, dry particle size; every 15-30 minutes: TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Size analysis for larger particles with an LASX optical particle counter.
* Composition: Derived from thermal analysis using computer-controlled temperature ramp up analysis in conjunction with the SMPS. Provides the fraction of ammonium to ammonium bisulfate, and can in principle differentiate between sea salt and crustal submicron particles.
* CCN: a time series of measurements of particles active at 0.5% supersaturation with a Hoffman & Associates model M1 CCN counter.
* CCN supersaturation spectrum using a plane parallel flow thermal diffusion chamber
Malé Cachier, Masclet b. Large volume sampling for organic speciation of size-separated aerosols Ongoing Programs
Malé Ansmann, Althausen, Heintzenberg c. Aerosol Lidar: measures aerosol backscatter profiles at 6 wavelengths between 355 and 1064nm. Also Raman signal at 607nm (N2) and 660nm (H2O) are measured. Day and night time. Ongoing programs
Malé Ramanathan, Woodbridge a. Hi-resolution Spectral Radiance: Fourier transform spectroradiometer, 0.1 cm-1 resolution, optimized for 0.3 - 2.5 µm Proposed for INDOEX
Malé Dickerson, Carsey (NOAA/AOML) a. Surface NO, NOy: medium sensitivity instrument, 10 pptv. To detect any strong incursions of polluted air from the Indian sub-continent Proposed for INDOEX
Malé Dickerson, Doddridge b. Continuous SO2: Thermal Environmental Instruments, Inc., pulsed fluorescent untra-sensitive SO2 analyzer (Model 43S). To provide evidence of the incursion of relatively fresh (not fully reacted) polluted air masses from the subcontinent Proposed for INDOEX
Reunion Megie, Baldy, Ancellet c. Ozone Sondes: Weekly launches, part of an ongoing program with several years of data. Rate of launch might be increased during INDOEX Ongoing programs
Reunion Megie, Baldy, Ancellet d. Ozone Lidar: Construction is being considered. Possibility: use Ancellet's O3 lidar which is currently on French research plane "ARAT" (Fokker), or the ARAT itself Ongoing programs
Malé NCAR a. Integrated Sounding System Proposed for INDOEX
Malé Heintzenberg b. Radiosonde Ongoing programs