Table of Acronyms

ACE-1 Southern Hemisphere Marine Aerosol Characterization Experiment

ACE-2 Northern Hemisphere Marine Aerosol Characterization Experiment

ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing System

AEROCE Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment

AGL above ground level

AMIP Atmospheric Models Intercomparison Project

AOD aerosol optical depth

API/MS Atmospheric Pressure Inonization / Mass Spectrometry

APS Aerodynamic Particle Sizer

ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

ASSR Automated Solar/Sky Radiometer

ASHOE Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment

ASTEX Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment

AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

BAPMON Background Air Pollution MONitoring (WMO/UNEP)

BBHIR broadband hemispherical field-of-view infrared radiometer

BC black carbon

BL boundary layer

BMFT German equivalent of the US NSF

BTU Brandenburg Technical University, Cottbus

C4 Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate

CAIO Climate Atlas of the Indian Ocean

Cb cumulonimbus

CCM Community Climate Model (NCAR)

CCN cloud condensation nuclei

CEPEX Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment

CERES Clouds and Earth Radiation Energy System

CFC chlorofluorocarbon

CFR Centre des Faibles Radioactivités

CIDS C4 Integrated Data System

CL chemiluminescence

CLAP continuous light absorption photometer

CLIVAR CLImate VARiability and Predictability Program

CN condensation nucleus

CNC condensation nucleus counter

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

COADS Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set

CTM Chemistry Transport Model

CVI counterflow volume impactor

DIAL differential absorption lidar

DMA Differential Mobility Analyzer

DMPS Differential Mobility Particle Sizer

DMS dimethylsulfide

DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DOE Department of Energy

DU Dobson unit

ECHAM ECMWF Model at Hamburg

ECMWF European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast

EOP Enhanced Observation Phase

EOS Earth Observing System

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

ERBE Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

ERL/AL Environmental Research Laboratory/Aeronomy Laboratory

ESA European Space Agency

FCAS focused cavity aerosol spectrometer

FIRE First ISCCP Regional Experiment

FSU Florida State University

FSSP forward scattering spectrometer probe

FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer

FTS Fourier transform spectoradiometer

GAME GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment

GC Gas Chromatography

GCM general circulation model

GEBA Global Energy Balance Archive, World Climate Program

GEWEX Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

GMS Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GMT Greenwich Mean Time

GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (ESA)

GTS Global Telecommunication System

HIS high-resolution interferometer sounder

HPLC High-performance Liquid Chromatography

IAO Indian Ocean Atlas

ICDG Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere (KFA-Juelich)

ICE International Cirrus Experiment

IMD India Meteorology Department, Pune

IFP Intensive Field Phase

IfT Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig

IGAC International Global Atmospheric Chemistry

IGAP International Global Aerosol Program (IGAC)

IITM Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune

IMET Improved METeorological observation buoy

IMR Institute for Ocean Research, Rostock

INDOEX Indian Ocean Experiment

INSAT Indian Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

IO Indian Ocean

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IR Infrared

ISC International Steering Committee

ISCCP International Satellite Cloud and Climatology Project

ISRO Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore

ISS Integrated Sounding System

ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone

ITL Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig

KFA Nuclear Research Center, Juelich

Lidar light detection and ranging

LMD Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris

LOA Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, Lille

MAC Multiphase Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)

MACS multi-sample aerosol collecting system

MAGE Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (IGAC)

MAIIOE Meteorological Atlas of the International Indian Ocean Experiment

MAS MODIS airborne simulator

MASP multi-angle aerosol scattering probe

MATCH Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry

MBL marine boundary layer

MCR multi-channel cloud radiometer

METEOSAT Meteorological Satellite (European)

MFRSR multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers

MIH Meteorological Institute of the University of Hamburg

MIM Munich Institute of Meteorology

MPIK Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg

MODIS Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

MPAN Peroxymethacrylic nitric anhydride

MPIC Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz

MPIM Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg

MS Mass Spectrometry

MSA methanesulfonate

NARE North Atlantic Regional Experiment

NASA National Aeronautical and Space Administration

NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research

NE northeast

NFOVR narrow field-of-view longwave radiometer

NH Northern Hemisphere

NHcT Northern Hemisphere continental Tropical air

NHmT Northern Hemisphere maritime Tropical air

NIR Near Infrared

NMC National Meteorological Center

NMHC non-methane hydrocarbons

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOAA/AL NOAA - Aeronomy Laboratory

NOAA/AOML NOAA - Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory

NOAA/CMDL NOAA - Climate Modeling and Diagnostics Laboratory

NPL National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi

NSF National Science Foundation

nss non sea-salt

OC organic carbon

OCTS Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner

OLR outgoing longwave radiation

OPC optical particle counter

PALMS particle aerosol laser mass spectrometer

PAN peroxyacetyl nitrate

PCASP Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe

PI Principal Investigator

PMEL Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory

PMS FSSP Particle Measuring Systems' Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe

POLDER Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances

PPN Peroxypropioxyl nitrate

pptn precipitation

pptv part per trillion by volume

PROTEUS PROfile TElemetry of Upper ocean currentS (PMEL/NOAA)

RAMS Radiation Measurement System

RASS Radio Acoustic Sounding System

RDMA radial differential mobility analyzer

RH relative humidity

RTNEPH Real Time NEPH Analysis (neph in Greek = cloud)

R/V research vessel

SABL Scanning Aerosol Backscatter Lidar

SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

SBR Shortwave broadband radiometer

ScaRaB Scanner for Earth Radiation Budget

SeaWiFS Sea-viewing Wide-Field Sensor

SH Southern Hemisphere

SHmT Southern Hemisphere maritime Tropical air

SHxT Southern Hemisphere extra Tropical air

SINDICATE Study of the Indirect and Direct Influences on Climate of Anthropogenic Trace Gas Emission

SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography

SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

SST sea surface temperature

STE stratospheric-tropospheric exchange

STEP Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange Project

STJ subtropical jet stream

TAFTS tropospheric airborne Fourier transform spectrometer

TDDR total direct-diffuse radiometer

TDLAS Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

TDMA Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

TIROS Television InfraRed Operational Satellite

TOGA-COARE Tropical Oceans - Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean - Atmosphere Response Experiment

TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

TOVS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder

TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

TSE tropospheric-stratospheric exchange

UAK University of Alaska

UEA University of East Anglia

UMD University of Maryland

UNEP United Nations Environmental Program

UT/LS Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere

UTT upper tropical troposphere

UV ultraviolet

VHRR Very High Resolution Radiometer

VIRS Visible Infrared Scanner

VSSC Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum

WMO World Meteorological Organization